One of the most widely studied topics in organizational behaviour research in recent years is Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). The concept was introduced by Bateman & Organ in 1980s and later refined and strengthened by number of researchers such as Podsakoff and Mackenzie (1993), Jahangir et al., (2004); Khalid and Ali (2005). Organizational Citizenship Behaviours are a special type of work behaviour that are defined as individual behaviours that are beneficial to the organization and are discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system . These behaviours are primarily matter of personnel choice as omission is not considered as punishable in the organizations. Scholars hold different views with respect to the dimensionality of OCB. Smith et al., conceptualized OCB with two dimensions: altruism (behaviour targeted specifically athelping individuals) and generalized compliance (behaviour reflecting compliance with general rules, norms and expectations. Later Organ identified five OCB dimensions namely altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness and sportsmanship. Organ, further, elaborated that OCB can maximize the efficiency and productivity of both the employees and the organization that ultimately will contribute to the effective functioning of an organization.
OCB reflects a “good soldier syndrome” which is necessary for the prosperity and good functioning of every organization. It means doing a better job, making an effort above and beyond formal requirements, and filling the gap between procedures and regulations on the one hand, and dynamic reality on the other. OCB is usually perceived as exerting exceptionally good behaviors for the sake of the organization and informally supporting its members.
A study on Organizational Citizenship Behavior helps in identifying the agreeableness and conscientiousness as dispositional aspects of personality, employees job satisfaction, organizational justice, organizational commitment and positive feeling. In other words OCB is facilitated when employees have a) strong agreeableness and conscientiousness as personality traits, b) High Job Satisfaction, c) View organization’s system and procedure as fair d) a feeling of attachment with their organization, e) positive feeling.Successful organizations need employees who will do more than their usual job duties and provide performance that is beyond expectations. Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) describe actions in which employees are willing to go above and beyond their prescribed role requirements.
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